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The research is supported by a grant of the Russian Science Foundation “The Indian philosophy in the context of the history of world philosophy: problem of broadcast of meanings”, project no. 16-18-10427

The concept of jīvanmukti, “liberation during life”, arose in Advaita Vedānta as a response to the paradigm of “disembodied” liberation (videhamukti). The condition of jīvanmukti is highly appreciated in Tantrism. The concept of jīvanmukti often includes the meanings of identification with the absolute, the supreme deity. There are different kinds of jīvanmukti, for example, active and passive ones. The state of jīvanmukti is the complete independence, highest ideal, spiritual perfection. Jīvanmukta considers the entire objective world to be a reflection of the higher Self. The status of jīvanmukta can have an ideological dimension when it is opposed to traditions that are considered ineffective in Tantra. The acquisition of jīvanmukti is primarily due to spiritual knowledge. On the one hand, knowledge is a certain state of the carrier of knowledge himself; on the other hand, it is always knowledge of “something”. Although jīvanmukti can be reached through almost all tantric practices, there is a certain gradation of the time spent on it. The man reaches liberation during life not in isolation from the world. Outwardly, jīvanmukta cannot stand out among ordinary members of society; all his uniqueness is hidden inside his consciousness.

Key words: Hindu Tantrism, jīvanmukti, liberation

DOI: 10.22250/2072-8662.2019.1.77-86

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About the author


Sergey V. PakhomovPhD (Philosophy), Docent; Associate Professor at Department of Philosophical Anthropology and History of Philosophy, Institute of Human Philosophy; Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia;

26 Malaya Posadskaya, 197046, St. Petersburg, Russia; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.