The article deals with the issues of modern ontology, epistemology and phenomenology of mythological and religious experience. The author postulates the idea that such basic spheres of humanitarian knowledge as the philosophy of culture and ontology of myth and religion can be conceptual core of synthesis of paradigms. The cognitive potential and complementarity of ideas of M. Eliade, C. G. Jung and S. Grof is shown and meta-theoretical model of mythological and religious experience is built on the base of it. Synthesis of ideas of M. Eliade and C. G. Jung promotes the new solution of the classic problem of being and consciousness: one is not derived from the other, but they coincide at the deep level of functioning of culture and consciousness. These approaches are supplemented with the transpersonal paradigm by S. Grof, which is based on presentation of universal nature of archetypes and mythological forms and confirms C. G. Jung’s ideas about general significance of archetypes. The paper shows that transpersonal theory is a productive approach to study of the phenomenon of archetypes and mythological forms in culture and consciousness.
The article reveals that M. Eliade’s ideas can be the base for multidisciplinary research. M. Eliade’s approach can be regarded as a meta-theory and methodology of humanitarian knowledge. On the base of the concepts of M. Eliade, C. G. Jung, S. Grof, and J. Campbell there was created an integrated model of mythological and religious experience: existential-personal level is supplemented with transpersonal one. The author offers a new approach to the problem of mythological and religious consciousness, and states that it has both psychological and ontological nature. The article reveals that M. Eliade’s religious ontology has a significant cultural and philosophical potential in the development of the strategy of defining the determinants of formation of different identity forms.
Key words: epistemology, ontology and phenomenology of myth and religion, M. Eliade’s paradigm of ontology and the phenomenology of myth, C. G. Jung’s analytic psychology paradigm, S. Grof’s transpersonal paradigm, non-classical philosophy of religion, meta-theoretical model, typology of mythological and religious experience, multidisciplinary research, synthesis of paradigms of modern humanitarian knowledge.
About the author
Nataly A. Nikonovich – PhD (Philosophy), Senior Research Fellow of the Department of the History of Philosophy and Comparative Studies, Institute of Philosophy of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus;